@Paracelsus1092 Stone Age Herbalist Pygmy Futurism | Beserker Yoga Revival | Narcoanthropology & Yamnilote Studies | Nganga R&D | Reactionary Ecology | 馃嚪馃嚰 Lost in the deep Pleistocene

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
I guess some get to be deep, mysterious and enigmatic and others get to be cutesy and dimpled.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
@Paracelsus1092: In this house we enjoy orcas and can't wait to see what the two of them do next.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
In 2015 a pair of orcas - Port & Starboard - arrived in Cape Town and began hunting local sharks, surgically targeting the liver. The great whites fled, causing a collapse in marine tourism, but it gets stranger.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
New British Iron Age comb discovered at Bar Hill Cambridge. It was made from human skull.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Archaeology textbooks in 2005 were something else.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Throughout the 19th and early 20th century, colonial govts in India and North America actively discouraged and banned two ceremonies which had one thing in common. The suspension of participants by their skin with hooks. Researchers call these rituals 'hook swinging'.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Looks like these guys, Paranthropus, were making some of the first stone tools and eating hippos. Probably scavenged, but maybe even hunting dates back much further than we realised.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Bronzization might be the most painful neologism, but the map is good. The bronze age world and its frontiers.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
"it appears that inequality and domination have not been examined comprehensively enough at all in archaeological research. One of the reasons is the belief that most of the prehistoric societies were egalitarian"

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Compared to other Plains tribes, the Comanche have always stood out for anthropologists as having a v minimal and even skeptical view of religion. They had no priesthoods, few ceremonies, but focused on the personal experience of the warrior and the hunt.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Although the Navajo code talkers are the best known, many other native languages were used in WW1 and 2, inc Comanche, Muscogee, Tlingit, Choctaw, Cree, Chippewa, Hopi and Lakota. Might write a thread on the Comanche code unit which took part in the D-Day landings.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Why did a type of Peruvian bark become the most important military drug for centuries, enable Europeans to colonise Africa and found the anti-malaria drug industry? Let's take a look at quinine.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Xiongnu liberation of Han steel technology ultimately ended up being a disaster for the Romans at Carrhae

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
On Neanderthals hunting straight-tusked elephants. More than 2500 daily portions of 4000 calories per portion! 3 months of food for you and your mates.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Can you wield the giant 2.3m long dakoken sword anon?

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Softer food means less chewing and less dental wear, resulting in a weaker chin and more gracile face. A study of 191 people and over 1500 teeth from the Mesolithic to the present confirms this. The switch from hunting to farming and then to processed food produces less wear.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
What happened here? Archaeologists uncover the grave of a small child, with a linen bag over their head. Surrounded by no less than 142 dogs at the Faiyum Oasis necropolis. No date but previous burials run from 4th C BC to 7th C AD. No sign of violence, all died simultaneously

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
And how does this make you feel?

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Over 1000 bog bodies have been studied for a new paper, revealing a deep continuity of practice from 9000 BC onwards. The largest spikes were during the early Neolithic and the Iron/Roman Age, clustered around northern Europe, Britain and Ireland.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
@Paracelsus1092: With this in mind we can set the scene - the 1640's, the Iroquois have lost many people to disease and they desperately need to replace them, revenge them and gain access to beaver-rich hunting grounds. The Mourning Wars begin in earnest.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
What if you launched a war against your neighbours, not to gain land or treasure, but to forcibly create new people? The Iroquois Wars for Mourning, Grief, Revenge and Beavers in the 17th Century.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
A Byzantine era monk wrapped in iron chains and rings was uncovered at the Saint Zachary church in Khirbat el-Masani, Israel. Most likely he was an ascetic, secluded in a cell or chamber, weighed down by iron.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
@Paracelsus1092: So we have the contradiction that Tasmanians may have increased their use of wildfires, despite their supposed cultural loss of fire and fishing.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Without vultures, corpses now take months and not minutes to be properly stripped to the bone. This has prompted the use of solar dryers in the Towers to help speed up the decomposition process. https://t.co/0y6XPFX4bH
Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
: But ultimately the Parsi are now facing the annihilation of this ancient custom, and some are now considering the previously unthinkable - cremation.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
So where does this leave the Parsi population, who rely so heavily on the vulture? https://t.co/sh5nSxBIBv
Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
: Without vultures, corpses now take months and not minutes to be properly stripped to the bone. This has prompted the use of solar dryers in the Towers to help speed up the decomposition process.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Vultures are a 'metabolic dead end' for pathogens, truly nature's most efficient way to clean the land of diseased carcasses. Now with no vultures, wild dogs and rats are free to carry rabies, plague and anthrax. Over half of SE Asia's rabies deaths occur in India. https://t.co/OmwHZmgYhl
Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
: So where does this leave the Parsi population, who rely so heavily on the vulture?

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Despite a veterinary ban on diclofenac in 2006 in India, Nepal and Pakistan, it remains a widespread and popular medicine. This has had profound biological consequences in India, a nation with over 500 million cattle and a majority religion which does not eat them. https://t.co/x1HO7HFHkN
Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
: Vultures are a 'metabolic dead end' for pathogens, truly nature's most efficient way to clean the land of diseased carcasses. Now with no vultures, wild dogs and rats are free to carry rabies, plague and anthrax. Over half of SE Asia's rabies deaths occur in India.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Diclofenac is a mild painkiller, but in vultures it causes the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the organs. Acute renal necrosis and visceral gout then kill the bird unlucky enough to feed upon any treated deceased animal. https://t.co/uCx22M7aOd
Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
: Despite a veterinary ban on diclofenac in 2006 in India, Nepal and Pakistan, it remains a widespread and popular medicine. This has had profound biological consequences in India, a nation with over 500 million cattle and a majority religion which does not eat them.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
The mystery of the vanishing vultures has been researched for decades, but in 2003 a convincing answer was found. During the 1990's Indian farmers, amongst others, had started treating their livestock with an aspirin-like drug called diclofenac. https://t.co/Iu9lyC4v7a
Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
: Diclofenac is a mild painkiller, but in vultures it causes the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the organs. Acute renal necrosis and visceral gout then kill the bird unlucky enough to feed upon any treated deceased animal.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
To give but one example - it was estimated that, as recently as the 1980's, thirty million white -backed vultures once coasted on thermals above southeast Asia. Now there are just eleven thousand. What happened? https://t.co/Jz6yhOyeBp
Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
: The mystery of the vanishing vultures has been researched for decades, but in 2003 a convincing answer was found. During the 1990's Indian farmers, amongst others, had started treating their livestock with an aspirin-like drug called diclofenac.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
This process, of excarnation by vulture, has lasted for millennia. But it has rapidly found itself under threat, due to the simple and shocking fact that around 99% of southeast Asia's vultures have disappeared since the mid 1990's. https://t.co/M3FS2CvWtm
Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
: To give but one example - it was estimated that, as recently as the 1980's, thirty million white -backed vultures once coasted on thermals above southeast Asia. Now there are just eleven thousand. What happened?

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
A flock of vultures will strip a corpse in about half an hour, leaving behind the bones which are swept into the 'bhandar' pit, to be sun bleached before removal for burial. Only the Parsi 'untouchable' sub-caste, the 'khandhias', actually handle the human remains https://t.co/bZoBxNmAXB
Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
: This process, of excarnation by vulture, has lasted for millennia. But it has rapidly found itself under threat, due to the simple and shocking fact that around 99% of southeast Asia's vultures have disappeared since the mid 1990's.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
The towers are roofless circular buildings, about 300ft in diameter and 18ft high, with a single iron door. Bodies are placed on the interior plinth, men on the outside, women in the middle and children near the central pit. https://t.co/1Beqxb4vzr
Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
: A flock of vultures will strip a corpse in about half an hour, leaving behind the bones which are swept into the 'bhandar' pit, to be sun bleached before removal for burial. Only the Parsi 'untouchable' sub-caste, the 'khandhias', actually handle the human remains

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Ritual circular structures called 'dakhmas' were built by Zoroastrians to keep this process hidden and sanitary. Also known as the Towers of Silence, the Parsi of India have maintained this tradition to the present day. https://t.co/12CIjYc0vx
Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
: The towers are roofless circular buildings, about 300ft in diameter and 18ft high, with a single iron door. Bodies are placed on the interior plinth, men on the outside, women in the middle and children near the central pit.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
In keeping with the teachings of Zarathustra, the Parsi insist on a form of sky burial known as 'Dokhmenashini', whereby the body is exposed and consumed by vultures. This prevents the contamination of the elements by the polluting effect of the corpse. https://t.co/AsJayPJbvX
Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
: Ritual circular structures called 'dakhmas' were built by Zoroastrians to keep this process hidden and sanitary. Also known as the Towers of Silence, the Parsi of India have maintained this tradition to the present day.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
After the Muslim conquest of Persia in the mid 600's AD, followers of the Zoroastrian religion fled to India. They were granted refuge in Gujarat and became known as the Parsis. https://t.co/3cMf6DUkS2
Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
: In keeping with the teachings of Zarathustra, the Parsi insist on a form of sky burial known as 'Dokhmenashini', whereby the body is exposed and consumed by vultures. This prevents the contamination of the elements by the polluting effect of the corpse.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
What if your religion required you to be eaten by vultures after you died, but all the vultures suddenly disappeared? A look at the twilight of contemporary Zoroastrianism and India's vulture crisis. https://t.co/E5PUg9TpZC
Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
: After the Muslim conquest of Persia in the mid 600's AD, followers of the Zoroastrian religion fled to India. They were granted refuge in Gujarat and became known as the Parsis.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
What if your religion required you to be eaten by vultures after you died, but all the vultures suddenly disappeared? A look at the twilight of contemporary Zoroastrianism and India's vulture crisis.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Bone marrow tart, with cream and egg yolks for good measure. Go back a little way into British cuisine and everything is awash with suet, butter, eggs, blood, gelatine, rich spiced broths, organ meat puddings and dairy.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Case from earlier this year - A medieval Polish man, the first ever reported in the literature to have suffered from two forms of dwarfism: Achondroplastic dwarfism and L茅ri鈥揥eill dyschondrosteosis.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Tfw researching 脟atalh枚y眉k

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
New Danish bog body discovered. Dated to 3000 BC, so presumably Funnel Beaker. The few human remains were found with animal bones and an unpolished flint axe, which points towards a deliberate deposition.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
"A 1920s famine-relief study documented that famine had occurred in some part of China during each of the previous two thousand years" Is there anywhere else where this has happened?

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
@Paracelsus1092: The Linearbandkeramik - LBK - was the earliest agricultural society to settle central Europe (5600-4250 BC), based on Near East cereals and focused around rectangular longhouses, they had little interaction with the Mesolithic foragers who occupied the coasts and wetlands.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
There's a distinct possibility that Late Neolithic societies had a caste system, with those of higher hunter-gatherer/WHG ancestry at the bottom. The casual way the latter were deposited into circular pits could even point to the sacrifice of slaves.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
For me, its Mindy not being obese that really defies credulity

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Neolithic Savagery - The Case of the Pit of Limbs At Bergheim, France, a 2012 excavation revealed a dug pit filled with severed arms and human bodies, seemingly thrown in on top of hacked off body parts. Let's explore...

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Ok, wild speculation time. There's an old theory that the Xiongnu Confederation were led by a Native American Athabaskan group who back-migrated into Siberia. Yes, I will elaborate

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Peruvian Nazca trophy heads and mummies tested positive for cocaine, ayahuasca and the San Pedro cactus - a potent source of mescaline.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
**THE BIG THREAD OF NHS FOOD** Time to have a quick tour of hospital meals in the UK, brace yourselves...

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
The Guyaju Caves, a fortified community structure found in a valley near Dongmenying, Beijing, in 1984. No-one knows who built it, when it was built, or why.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
@Paracelsus1092: The DNA from these two caves reveals two distinct, unrelated groups: the people of Gough's Cave are best represented by Magdalenian ancestry from El Miron in Spain / Goyet in Belgium. Kendrick's Cave is best modelled by ancestors from Villabruna in Italy. What does this mean?

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
New DNA study reveals two ancestral streams into Britain, but only one survived. Let's break down a story of skull cups, ice age hunters and the emergence of the British Mesolithic.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
@Paracelsus1092: Into these new areas came Magdalenian and Epigravettian people, following prey animals and exploring new territories. In Britain these late Magdalenians are known as 'Creswellians', and in northern Europe they are the 'Hamburgians'

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Mithridates was the ultimate sperg king. Fluent in apparently 22 languages, he spent his life coldly and precisely experimenting with every available poison and medical text available and created a universal antidote, inherited by generations of emperors.

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Stone Age Herbalist @Paracelsus1092
Help me find my frens. We need huge excavation team to look for lost Saharan civilisations. Time for new Age of Discovery! https://twitter.com/Paracelsus1092/status/1380048669794316288/photo/1

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